Evening School Sem 2 2021

Six 12-week courses taught online August-October

The Melbourne School of Continental Philosophy is proud to present the Evening School Sem 2 2021 curriculum.  All courses are 24 hours in length.  All courses will be taught via Zoom. As always significant discounts apply for those enrolling in multiple courses. If you have any questions which aren't in our FAQs please email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

When: 2 August - 28 October

Where: ONLINE.  All courses will be taught via Zoom.  Video recordings will also be available within a few days after each seminar for those who can't make the schedule.  Readings are made available online before the school begins.  Links to the Zoom classroom are sent out with the registration email.  All payment must be made via credit card during enrolment.  Also it's worth noting that Melbourne (AEST) is 10 hours ahead of UTC (5pm here is 7am in Berlin and 10pm in LA).

Fees (AUD):

Courses Waged Unwaged
1 $225 $150
2 $270 $180
3+ $300 $200


Evening School Program

2 hours per week for 12 weeks

Mon 6:30-8:30pm
Starts 2 Aug
Heidegger on Technology and Dwelling
Lecturer: Prof Andrew Benjamin
Tue 5:00-7:00pm
Starts 3 Aug
Aristotelian Antics – An Introduction to the Stagirite and his Islamic and Christian heirs
Lecturer: Jon Rubin
Tue 7:30-9:30pm
Starts 3 Aug
The Philosophy of Angels
Lecturer: Dr Nina Power
Wed 5:00-7:00pm
Starts 4 Aug
Preparatory Fundamental Analysis of Dasein
Lecturer: Dr Mammad Aidani
Wed 7:30-9:30pm
Starts 4 Aug
Schelling’s Philosophy of Mythology
Lecturer: Dr Christian Kerslake
Thu 6:30-8:30pm
Starts 5 Aug
Plato’s Theory of Forms
Lecturer: Bernard Lewin


Course Descriptions

Heidegger on Technology and Dwelling

Lecturer: Prof Andrew Benjamin

Starts: Mon 6:30-8:30pm 2 Aug

Full Schedule: Aug 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, Sep 6, Break, 20, 27, Oct 4, 11, 18, 25

Location: Taught via Zoom online.

The organizing thread of this course is that any account of human being, especially one that insists on relationality, has to assume the primacy of being-in-common and being-in-place. This course, which will serve equally as an introduction to the work of the later Heidegger, will expand on and analyze these assumptions. In the end there will need to be a critique of commonality and place. Both are too abstract and thus none is able to identify the original complexity that is constitutive of relationality. Both commonality and place therefore have to be rethought. That project cannot escape the question of the role of technology in that rethinking.

This course will consist of a systematic study of two texts by Heidegger: Building, Dwelling, Thinking (1951) and The Question Concerning Technology (1953). In practical terms this will involve a line by line study of each text.

The course itself will not assume any background knowledge of Heidegger’s work. Concepts that arise in the analysis of the texts will be located in Heidegger’s philosophical system as a whole. Both texts are available in Martin Heidegger: Basic Writings (Edited by David Farrell Krell). Routledge. 2010. While the course will concentrate on Heidegger’s texts appropriate secondary reading will be provided.

Course Structure. (The page numbers refer to the pagination in Basic Writings:

Week 1  Introduction to Heidegger on Dwelling and Technology: Building Dwelling Thinking: pages 347-351

Week 2  Building Dwelling Thinking: pages 351-356

Week 3  Building Dwelling Thinking: pages 356-359

Week 4  Building Dwelling Thinking: pages 359-363

Week 5 Agamben and Heidegger: A Translation of Agamben’s Lecture Constructing and Inhabiting – which, in part, is his critique of Building Dwelling Thinking will be provided.

Week 6   The Question Concerning Technology: pages 311-316

Week 7   The Question Concerning Technology: pages 316-321

Week 8  The Question Concerning Technology: pages 321-325

Week 9  The Question Concerning Technology: pages 326-330

Week 10  The Question Concerning Technology: pages 331-336

Week 11.  The Question Concerning Technology: pages 336-341

Week 12.   Lecture: Dwelling and Technology after Heidegger

Aristotelian Antics – An Introduction to the Stagirite and his Islamic and Christian heirs

Lecturer: Jon Rubin

Starts: Tue 5:00-7:00pm 3 Aug

Full Schedule: Aug 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, Sep 7, Break, 21, 28, Oct 5, 12, 19, 26

Location: Taught via Zoom online.

And then – my brow raised higher still – I saw,

among his family of philosophers,

the master of all those who think and know.

When, at the start of the fourteenth century, Dante refered to the, “master of all those who think and know” no name was necessary. All his readers would have recognised the allusion to Aristotle. For two thousand years, he was often refered to simply as The Philosopher.

  • When Descartes refounds the philosophical project, it is still within and against an Aristotelian context.
  • When Kant takes his transcendental turn, his Copernican revolution, nevertheless his division of inner and outer sense remains embedded within an Aristotelian heritage of discussions of quantity and quality (and of course his table of categories retains an Aristotelian hue.
  • When Heidegger accuses philosphers of obscuring the difference between Being and beings, it is Aristotle that is the primary target.
  • More than over-turning Plato, it is escaping Aristotle’s shackling of difference that is the initial project of Deleuze’s Difference and Repetition.

Aristotle needs to be read and understood if we are to also understand why, for two and a half thousand years, so many philosophers have engaged, disengaged and been enraged by his thought.

Aristotle’s Collected Works has 48 different titles with topics running from animals to rhetoric and dreams to the names of the winds. This is believed to be about a third of what he wrote and much of what has survived was not meant to be published. No single course can do more than scratch the surface of this work and legacy. This course will therefore focus on one particular conceptual constellation of his work and its paricularly problematic impact on his Islamic and Christian followers. This constellation is formed out of a series of interlocking dyads:

  • necessity/chance
  • actuality/possibility
  • essence/existence
  • activity/potentiality

Aristotle is not Leibniz, not everything has to have a reason – but necessity is at the heart of Aristotle’s concern with philosophical explanation and it proves just as problematic to keep necessity (in its logical, material and divine forms) bound and away from human affairs as it did for his followers. Not everything has to have a reason, but what if it did?

The first five weeks of the course will examine five texts from Aristotle’s vast corpus, specifically focusing on the problem of necessity in them:

  • The Organon (the collection of his logical works)
  • The Physics
  • The Metaphysics
  • On the Soul
  • The Nichomachean Ethics

Each two hour lecture will have two parts. The first part will provide a general overview of the text being discussed, identifying key problems within it; its location within the Aristotelian corpus and some discussion of it’s early reception and impact. The second part of the lecture will offer a close reading of one or two selected passages that illustrate a key philosophical problem from within the text.

The second part of the course will look at three Islamic philosophers and three medieval Christian philosophers, before ending in the seventeenth century to see how Spinoza and Leibniz battled over the problem of necessity.

  1. Avicenna: The division of essence from existence
  2. Al-Ghazali: The Incoherence of the Philosophers
  3. Averroes: On the human intellect
  4. Aquinas: Of Existence and Essence
  5. Scotus: Contingency and Freedom
  6. Suarez: On Creation, Conservation, and Concurrence
  7. Spinoza and Leibniz on necessity and possibility

The Philosophy of Angels

Lecturer: Dr Nina Power

Starts: Tue 7:30-9:30pm 3 Aug

Full Schedule: Aug 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, Sep 7, Break, 21, 28, Oct 5, 12, 19, 26

Location: Taught via Zoom online.

For He hath given His Angels charge over thee, to keep thee in all thy ways
Psalm 90

Angels are messengers, protectors and bureaucrats, amongst many other things. They have no biological bodies but are not always entirely incorporeal either. It is unclear how they speak – Aquinas suggests they use ‘interior speech’ – and they do not reason (again, according to Aquinas). The angel is a reminder of hierarchy, of signs, of communication. They feature in multiple myths and all major religions.

The angel does the dirty work, often standing in the wreckage. In our age of hyper-communication, earthly destruction and techno-scientific domination, what role is there for angels? This course will examine the philosophy of angels from multiple angles: historical, theological, semiological, epistemological, political and poetical. We will seek to understand many angels, good and bad, the better to comprehend what, in our age, is sacred and what is not.

Week 1: Why Angels, Why Now?

Giorgio Agamben, ‘§ 6 Angelology and Bureaucracy’, The Kingdom and the Glory: For a Theological Genealogy of Economy and Government (Homo Sacer II, 2), translated by Lorenzo Chiesa with Matteo Mandarini (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011 [2007]), pp. 144-166

Film: A Matter of Life and Death (Powell & Pressburger, 1946)

Week 2: The Order of Angels

Erik Peterson, ‘The Book on the Angels: Their Place and Meaning in the Liturgy’

Pseudo-Dionysus the Areopagite, ‘The Celestial Hierarchy’ (5th century AD)


Week 3: Demonstrating Angels

Saint Augustine, Exposition on the Psalms (selection), (completed AD 418)

Peter King, ‘Augustine and Anselm on Angelic Sin’, A Companion to Angels in Medieval Philosophy, ed. Tobias Hoffmann (Leiden: Brill, 2012), pp. 261-281

Thomas Aquinas, On Spiritual Creatures (De Spiritualibus Creaturis), c. 1266-1269

Gregory T. Doolan, ‘Aquinas on the Demonstrability of Angels’, A Companion to Angels in Medieval Philosophy, ed. Tobias Hoffmann (Leiden: Brill, 2012), pp. 13-44

Week 4: Angels and the Occult

Frances Yates, The Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan Age (London: Routledge, 1979)

Chapter 5 ‘The Occult Philosophy and Magic: Henry Cornelius Agrippa’

Chapter 8 ‘John Dee: Christian Cabbalist’

Christopher I Lehrich, The Language of Demons and Angels: Cornelius Agrippa’s Occult Philosophy

Chapter 4 ‘The Language of Demons and Angels’, pp. 147-206

Week 5: Angels and Islam

Henry Corbin, History of Islamic Philosophy (extracts, tba)

Tom Cheetham, All the World an Icon: Henry Corbin and the Angelic Function of Beings (Berkeley, North Atlantic Books, 2012), Chapter 3, pp.

Week 6: Angels and Modernity

Michel Serres, Angels: A Modern Myth, translated by Francis Cowper (Paris, New York : Flammarion, 1995 [1993])

Week 7: Angels and Knowing

Gregory Bateson & Mary Catherine Bateson, Angels Fear: Towards an Epistemology of the Sacred (New York, Bantam, 1987), Chapter 7 and extracts (tba)

Week 8: Angels and History

Walter Benjamin, ‘On the Concept of History’ https://www.sfu.ca/~andrewf/CONCEPT2.html

Michael Löwy ‘Religion, Utopia and Counter-modernity: The Allegory of the Angel of History in Walter Benjamin’, Social Compass 36(1) (1989), pp. 95-104

Stéphane Mosès, The Angel of History: Rosenzweig, Benjamin, Scholem, translated by Barbara Harshav (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2009 [1992]), ‘The Angel of History’ (Chapter 6).

Week 9: Angels and Politics

Massimo Cacciari, The Necessary Angel, translated by Miguel E. Vatter (New York: SUNY, 1994)

Guy Ladreau, ‘Lin Piao as World and Representation’, translated by Barnett R. Rubin, Chicago Review, Vol. 32, No. 3, The French New Philosophers (Winter, 1981), pp. 48-57

Peter Hallward, ‘Fallen Angel: Guy Lardreau’s Later Voluntarism’, Radical Philosophy, 2.03 (December 2018) https://www.radicalphilosophy.com/article/fallen-angel

Week 10: Angels and the General Intellect

Paolo Virno, ‘Angels and the General Intellect: Individuation in Duns Scotus and Gilbert Simondon’, Parrhesia, No 7 (2009), pp. 58-67

Week 11: Satan and Violence

René Girard, I See Satan Fall Like Lightning, translated by James G. Williams (New York: Orbis Books, 2001 [1999]), Part 1, Chapters 1-3

Week 12: Angelicism, Extinction and the Internet

Selected writings from angelicism01


Contemporary reflection on angels by the class

Preparatory Fundamental Analysis of Dasein

Lecturer: Dr Mammad Aidani

Starts: Wed 5:00-7:00pm 4 Aug

Full Schedule: Aug 4, 11, 18, 25, Sep 1, 8, Break, 22, 29, Oct 6, 13, 20, 27

Location: Taught via Zoom online.

How has Martin Heidegger’s Being and Time opened a new way of thinking and reading texts, interpreting them, and understanding both being and the world- in which we live?

Undoubtedly, alongside Husserl and Wittgenstein’s works, Heidegger’s writings have transformed how we do philosophy today. Heidegger’s seminal book Being and Time is a must-read for anyone interested in understanding and gaining in-depth knowledge about the philosophy of the twentieth century and, most importantly, the consolidation of continental philosophy.

His unique phenomenological approach to philosophy, particularly regarding the question of Being - which he argues was ignored throughout the history of philosophy since Socratic times - Heidegger changed the ways read and do philosophy forever. The publication of Being and Time in 1927 established Martin Heidegger as an innovative, challenging, and formidable philosopher. With his new approach to philosophy, he paved a formidable path for many significant philosophers and theorists in the social sciences and humanities to emerge, flourish, and engage with new ways of thinking about thinking.

In this twelve-week series of readings of the first part of the book (Pages: 13 to 340), we will focus on some of the fundamental ideas and concepts that Heidegger introduces and discusses in his seminal work.  Throughout the sessions, we will also discuss his philosophical method and the significance of his ontological questioning method concerning the unique importance of the meanings of Being and beings in his phenomenological philosophy.

Reader: Please read the version of Being and Time, translated by John Macquarie & Edward Robinson. Basil Blackwell, 1985 publish this version.

Course schedule and pages for reading for each session will be handed out to the participants at our first session.

In these 12 seminars, it is anticipated that Division One: Part One of “Being and Time “(pp. 21 – 275) will be carefully and comprehensibly discussed.

Introduction (Reading Being and Time)

  1. The Question of Being and Time (sections, short intro- 1,2,3 and 4: pages 19-35)
  2. Method and Phenomenology [ the twofold task in working out the question of Being: method and Design of our Investigation- plan of Being and Time. Sections 5,6 and 8: Pages: 36-64))
  3. Analytic [Analysis of Dasein ( sections  9-11 Pages: 67-77)
  4. Being –in-the-world - knowing ( sections 12 and 13: 78-90 )
  5. The world and the Wroldhood (sections 14 to 24 the world as a significant whole: pages 91-148)
  6. Then they (25 and 27: 148-168)
  7. The features of Being- in and with[ Being-IN As Such] (28-29: pages 169-179)
  8. Atonement and understanding: [ Fear as a mode of state of Mind (30-33: pages 179-195)
  9. Understanding [Being there as understanding] (33-36 mode of interpretation and assertion. Pages 195-214)
  10. Discourse, Falling, Anxiety, Care, Idle talk etc. [Care as the Being of Dasein/Being-there and Discourse. Language] (36 to 43: Pages 214-244)
  11. The world, disclosedness, and althea (truth) (43 -44: Pages 244-273)

Reader: The set text for this course is the edition of Being and Time, translated by Johan Macquarie & Edward Robinson. Published by Basil Blackwell, 1985

Schelling’s Philosophy of Mythology

Lecturer: Dr Christian Kerslake

Starts: Wed 7:30-9:30pm 4 Aug

Full Schedule: Aug 4, 11, 18, 25, Sep 1, 8, Break, 22, 29, Oct 6, 13, 20, 27

Location: Taught via Zoom online.

Schelling’s Philosophy of Mythology (published posthumously in the form of twenty-nine lectures in Volume XII of his Sämmtliche Werke) is a major part of his final system of philosophy, often known as the ‘Positive Philosophy’ (in effect a vast and intricate treatment of the Philosophy of Religion). Hitherto unavailable in English translation, the contents of the work remain relatively unknown, although it has occasioned significant studies by Paul Tillich, Vladimir Jankélévitch, Manfred Frank, Edward Allen Beach and Xavier Tilliette. Some of the ideas in the lectures, already communicated in Schelling’s famous 1841-2 Berlin lectures on the Philosophy of Revelation, had a huge impact on Kierkegaard (although he did not know the Philosophy of Mythology itself, which was only published after his death). Using new translations of the Philosophy of Mythology and other works by Schelling and Friedrich Creuzer (whose Symbolism and Mythology of Ancient Peoples influenced Schelling), this course is a fresh attempt to shed light on this buried monument of modern philosophy. There are many theoretical innovations in the work (especially concerning the concepts of Being, power, God and sexual difference) that deserve a further hearing, and it may even be that some of Schelling’s explorations into the connections between religion, politics and culture have a renewed significance in the 21st century. Throughout the course, we will develop comparisons with the psychological work of Erich Neumann and the novels and writings of Philip K. Dick. We will propose three different readings of the Philosophy of Mythology: a heterodox Christian theological interpretation, a ‘Dionysiac’ interpretation, and a ‘tragic’ interpretation centred around the figure of Prometheus. One of the most striking aspects of the Philosophy of Mythology is the centrality given to the figure of Dionysus; but, against the view of the later Nietzsche, this is a Dionysus who anticipates rather than opposes Christ.

Beginning with an overview of the lively contemporary reception of Schelling’s late philosophy (focusing on Engels, Marx and Feuerbach), and an introduction to the basic moves of the Historical-Critical Introduction to the Philosophy of Mythology, we proceed directly to the conceptual centre of the late system, the theory of potencies. We will look at the Greek sources of Schelling’s theory (Pythagoras, Plato and Aristotle), and attempt to see whether a purely ontological (non-theological) account of Schelling’s system is possible. It will become clear that one of most fascinating aspects of Schelling’s late system is its extensive development of a theory of Being out of Aristotelian sources, with numerous parallels with Heidegger’s ontological investigations. For Schelling, Aristotle’s Metaphysics already contains a genuine science of Being, rooted in the concepts of potentiality and actuality, and he might have been perplexed at Heidegger’s insistence that the meaning of Being has fallen into obscurity. What Heidegger seems to miss, and what Schelling captures, is the role that power plays in the meaning of Being. We must also pay close attention to Schelling’s searching investigations into Judaic conceptions of Being (based in Exodus 3:14) and his pioneering reconstruction of the logic of monotheism, in order to make possible an examination of his distinction between two fundamental types of religion, mythology and revelation.

After comparing Creuzer’s Neoplatonic approach to mythology with Schelling’s theory, which is profoundly endebted to Plutarch’s insights into the role of evil in mythology in Isis and Osiris, we are ready in the second half of the course to get to grips with the basic features of Schelling’s account of Greek mythology, focusing first on the archaic gods: Ouranos, Ourania, Kronos and Cybele. We develop comparisons between Schelling’s ideas about masculine and feminine divinities and theories from Bachofen and Neumann. We become familiar with Kronos, and the fundamental opposition between Kronos and Dionysus, exploring the renewed contemporary political significance of the Kronian. We map out Schelling’s pioneering approach to comparative religion as a whole, focussing on what he takes to be three main mythological systems (the Egyptian, the Indian and the Greek), but also paying attention to his substantial accounts of ‘anti-mythological’ moments in world religion (Zoroastrianism, Buddhism), while continuing to probe the distinction between mythological and revealed religion.

The destination of the course is an exploration of Schelling’s and Creuzer’s accounts of Greek mystery religion, with particular focus on the figures of Demeter, Persephone and Dionysus. We conclude that it should be no surprise, given Schelling’s intellectual biography, that the Philosophy of Mythology should be a work that is susceptible to multiple interpretations, and restate our selection of three interpretations of the work: the Christian, the Dionysiac and the Promethean.

I. Schelling’s Late Philosophy and its Reception

II. Mythology and Monotheism

Reading: Schelling, Historical-Critical Introduction to the Philosophy of Mythology, lecture 4.

III. The Potencies and the Theogonic Process

Reading: Philosophical Introduction to the Philosophy of Mythology, lecture 17 (extract).

IV. Monotheism: God and Being

Reading: Schelling, Philosophy of Mythology, lectures 2, 6 (extracts).

V. Friedrich Creuzer’s Symbolik: A Neoplatonic Interpretation of Mythology

Reading: Creuzer, The Symbolism and Mythology of Ancient Peoples, extracts.

VI. Myth, Ecstasy and Evil

Reading: Schelling, Philosophical Investigations into the Essence of Human Freedom (extracts), Philosophy of Mythology, lectures 11 (Persia), 17 (Egypt) (extracts).

VII. Ouranos and Ourania: Sexual Difference

Reading: Schelling, Philosophy of Mythology, lecture 10.

VIII. The Kronian Insurgency

Reading: Schelling, Philosophy of Mythology, lecture 14.

IX. The Three Mythologies

Reading: Schelling, Philosophy of Mythology, extracts from lectures 17 (Egypt), 20 (India), 25 (Greece).

X. Dionysus in Creuzer, Schelling and Nietzsche

Reading: Schelling, Philosophy of Mythology, lecture 13.

XI. Demeter and Persephone in Greek Mystery Religion

Reading: Schelling, Philosophy of Mythology, lectures 8, 27.

XII. Dionysus, Christ and Prometheus

Reading: Schelling, Philosophy of Revelation (1841), Ottman translation (extract), and Philosophical Introduction to the Philosophy of Mythology, lecture 20.

Translations will be made available in advance on the course website, schellingsphilosophyofmythology.wordpress.com

Plato’s Theory of Forms

Lecturer: Bernard Lewin

Starts: Thu 6:30-8:30pm 5 Aug

Full Schedule: Aug 5, 12, 19, 26, Sep 2, 9, Break, 23, 30, Oct 7, 14, 21, 28

Location: Taught via Zoom online.

The teaching of Plato in today’s universities is so impoverished that it is nigh impossible for the student to see in Platonic formalism a credible alternative to modern Analytic Philosophy. The cartoon cut-out version invariably dished out to undergraduates only mimics Aristotles’ original ham-fisted critique. And it serves the same purpose, which is to launch inquiries in an opposite direction on assurance that, whatsoever misgivings may surface along the way, there is none so absurd as that left behind.

Just how neglected is Plato’s ‘theory of forms’ in the modern academic discourse is demonstrated by 20th century continental philosophers coming to similar conclusions as Plato and yet not realising it; indeed, some will see themselves in direct opposition when in fact there is close affinity. This course is set to remedy this situation, at least for our students, by offering a step-by-step introduction to the formal philosophy expounded by Plato in his dialogues.

Course Outline

Part I Socratic Forms

1. Introducing Plato

  • Plato’s historical context and influences
  • The dialogues
  • The Academy
  • Scientific mysticism
  • Reception ancient and modern

2.  Scepticism and wisdom

Reading: Apology p. 20c-23e | Theaetetus p. 149a – 151e | Ion

  • Scepticism of materialist epistemology
  • Scepticism of linguistic method
  • Wisdom, enthusiasm and knowledge from within
  • The formal (mathematical) approach

3. Introducing the Forms

Reading: Aristotle Metaphysics Bk I p. 187a-193a | Plato Euthyphro p. 5a-6e | Phaedo p. 100b-107a

  • The distraction of Aristotelian reception of Platonic formalism
  • Forms as insensible, timeless, and opposite
  • The other-in-the-same and generation as othering
  • From the forms of virtue to mathematical formalism

4. Learning-as-recollection and formal participation

Reading: Memo p. 80d-86c | Phaedo p. 73a-77a

  • The mind’s eye
  • The problem of reference in materialist epistemology
  • The form of sensible experience
  • The observed object as an internal construction of mind
  • How internal construction does not deny external causation.

5. The allegorical section of the Republic

Reading: Republic Bk VI, p. 487b to Bk VII p 521b

  • The allegorical method of exposition and mysticism
  • The sun-sight analogy
  • The divided line analogy
  • The allegory of the cave

6. The Pythagorean Plato

Reading: Republic Bk VII p 521c – 531d

  • Distortions and confusions in the reception history
  • The mathematical education program
  • The original, seminal One (not-none)
  • The geometric ratio (logos) and mathematical emanationism

Part II Eleatic Forms

  1. Mythos and Logos

Reading: Republic Bk II p. 376d-p.398b | Phaedo p. 107c-114d | Phaedrus p.229b-230a | Theaetetus p. 187a – 190e. | Luc Brisson Plato the Myth Maker Ch 9.

  • Poetry and representational art in Plato’s ideal society
  • From noble lies to lullabies for the dying
  • Mythos, logos and falsification
  • The problem of false belief and the regress into scepticism
  1. The Eleatic challenge

Reading: Theaetetus p. 151e – 184a

  • The historical Parmenides and Zeno
  • Theaetetus between Parmenides and Heraclitus
  • The Parmenidean One
  • The problem of non-being and regress into scepticism
  1. Plato’s Parmenides

Reading: Parmenides p. 126a – 155b

  • Enigmatic and varied reception
  • The critique of the theory of forms
  • Plato’s use of enigma and contradiction
  1. The higher dialectic and the method of division

Reading: Republic Bk VII p. 531d – 534e | Sophist p. 216a – 236e

  • Destroying hypotheses: the higher dialectic of the Republic
  • Destroying hypotheses in the Parmenides
  • The method of division in the Sophist
  1. Answering Parmenides

Reading: Sophist p. 236e – 268d

  • The elementary forms
  • The being of not-being
  • The triumph over Parmenides

12. Plato’s Scientific Mysticism

  • Scientific Practice as seeking the generative ratio (logos) of truly distinguish things
  • Knowing as a true account (logos) of things
  • Being as found behind the form of experience